As of January 2023, our "Journal of Controversies Obstetrics & Gynecology and Pediatrics" has been published under the Medihealth Academy to publish all articles, reviews and case reports on Pediatrics, especially in the field of Obstetrics and Gynecology. In order to facilitate the citation of the articles, to take our place in internationally respected indexes and to reach a wider readership, we will pay attention to the fact that our article language is only English in terms of acceptance. This journal is indexed by indices that are considered international scientific journal indices (DRJI, ESJI, OAJI, etc.). According to the current Associate Professorship criteria, it is within the scope of International Article 1-d. Each article published in this journal corresponds to 5 points.

EndNote Style
Original Article
Maternal serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D level in first-trimester pregnancy loss
Aims: Pregnancy loss (abortus) is defined as loss of fetal cardiac beat or expulsion of pregnancy material before 20 weeks. It has many causes such as chromosomal abnormalities, uterine anomalies, infections, and unknown causes. Vitamin D has become one of the new topics of research in many medical fields, as it has relations with other diseases besides bone diseases. In some studies of recurrent pregnancy loss, a low vitamin D level was found. In our study, vitamin D levels were measured in the first-trimester pregnancy loss and normal pregnancy group.
Methods: Patients, single pregnancies with a positive fetal heartbeat, who applied to the pregnant outpatient clinic for the first examination of pregnancy were included in the study, and vitamin D levels were measured at this time. The patients were followed up to the 12th gestational week using the hospital automation system. The groups of normal pregnancy and abortus groups were determined. 25-hydroxy (25-OH) vitamin D levels between 2-96 ng/ml can be detected, while over 30 ng/ml is sufficient, 20-29.99 ng/ml is insufficient, and <20 ng/ml is defined as a low 25(OH)D3 level.
Results: 66 patients were included in the pregnancy loss group, in the follow-up, 63 patients were in the normal pregnancy group. The mean vitamin D level of the individuals included in the study was measured as 7.45±4.64 ng/ml. Levels of vitamin D were 10.04±6.19 in the normal course group and 4.8±1.73 ng/ml in the intrauterine exitus group (p<0.05). At a vitamin D level of 6,87 ng/ml, pregnancy loss was expected with 90% sensitivity and 64% specificity.
Conclusion: It is still an important issue to determine the most appropriate level and preconceptional starting and the appropriate dose for maximum benefit for mother and baby, especially in the reproductive period and pregnant. Therefore, large-scale randomized controlled studies of high quality are needed.

1. Regan L, Rai R. Epidemiology and the medical causes of miscarriage.Baillieres Best Pract Res Clin Obstet Gynaecol. 2000;14(5):839-854.doi:10.1053/beog.2000.0123
2. Wang X, Chen C, Wang L, Chen D, Guang W, French J. Conception,early pregnancy loss, and time to clinical pregnancy: a population-basedprospective study. Fertil Steril. 2003;79(3):577-584. doi:10.1016/s0015-0282(02)04694-0
3. Klonoff-Cohen H, Lam-Kruglick P, Gonzalez C. Effects of maternal andpaternal alcohol consumption on the success rates of in vitro fertilizationand gamete intrafallopian transfer. Fertil Steril. 2003;79(2):330-339.doi:10.1016/s0015-0282(02)04582-x
4. Romero ST, Geiersbach KB, Paxton CN, et al. Differentiation of geneticabnormalities in early pregnancy loss. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol.2015;45(1):89-94. doi:10.1002/uog.14713
5. Holmes VA, Barnes MS, Alexander HD, McFaul P, Wallace JM. VitaminD deficiency and insufficiency in pregnant women: a longitudinal study.Br J Nutr. 2009;102(6):876-881. doi:10.1017/S0007114509297236
6. G&uuml;rb&uuml;z T, Dokuzeyl&uuml;l G&uuml;ng&ouml;r N. Hiperemezis gravidarumetiyopatogenezinde vitamin D eksikliğinin rol&uuml; var mı ?. ADY&Uuml; SağlıkBilimleri Derg. 2018; 4(2): 761-771. doi:10.30569/adiyamansaglik.408555
7. Park S, Yoon HK, Ryu HM, et al. Maternal vitamin D deficiency inearly pregnancy is not associated with gestational diabetes mellitusdevelopment or pregnancy outcomes in Korean pregnant women ina prospective study. J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo). 2014;60(4):269-275.doi:10.3177/jnsv.60.269
8. Lanham-New SA, Buttriss JL, Miles LM, et al. Proceedings of theRank Forum on Vitamin D. Br J Nutr. 2011;105(1):144-156. doi:10.1017/S0007114510002576
9. Ross AC, Manson JE, Abrams SA, et al. The 2011 report on dietaryreference intakes for calcium and vitamin D from the Institute ofMedicine: what clinicians need to know. J Clin Endocrinol Metab.2011;96(1):53-58. doi:10.1210/jc.2010-2704
10. Holick MF. Vitamin D deficiency. N Engl J Med. 2007;357(3):266-281.doi:10.1056/NEJMra070553
11. M&uuml;ller K, Diamant M, Bendtzen K. Inhibition of production andfunction of interleukin-6 by 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3. Immunol Lett.1991;28(2):115-120. doi:10.1016/0165-2478(91)90108-m
12. D&iacute;az L, Noyola-Mart&iacute;nez N, Barrera D, et al. Calcitriol inhibits TNF-alpha-induced inflammatory cytokines in human trophoblasts. J ReprodImmunol. 2009;81(1):17-24. doi:10.1016/j.jri.2009.02.005
13. Liu PT, Stenger S, Li H, et al. Toll-like receptor triggering of a vitaminD-mediated human antimicrobial response. Science. 2006;311(5768):1770-1773. doi:10.1126/science.1123933
14. Liu N, Kaplan AT, Low J, et al. Vitamin D induces innate antibacterialresponses in human trophoblasts via an intracrine pathway. Biol Reprod.2009;80(3):398-406. doi:10.1095/biolreprod.108.073577
15. Weisman Y, Harell A, Edelstein S, David M, Spirer Z, Golander A. 1 alpha,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 and 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 in vitrosynthesis by human decidua and placenta. Nature. 1979;281(5729):317-319. doi:10.1038/281317a0
16. Avila E, D&iacute;az L, Barrera D, et al. Regulation of Vitamin D hydroxylasesgene expression by 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 and cyclic AMP incultured human syncytiotrophoblasts. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol.2007;103(1):90-96. doi:10.1016/j.jsbmb.2006.07.010
17. Halhali A, D&iacute;az L, S&aacute;nchez I, Garab&eacute;dian M, Bourges H, Larrea F. Effectsof IGF-I on 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) synthesis by human placenta inculture. Mol Hum Reprod. 1999;5(8):771-776. doi:10.1093/molehr/5.8.771
18. Noff D, Edelstein S. Vitamin D and its hydroxylated metabolites in therat. Placental and lacteal transport, subsequent metabolic pathways andtissue distribution. Horm Res. 1978;9(5):292-300. doi:10.1159/000178924
19. Kovacs CS, Kronenberg HM. Maternal-fetal calcium and bonemetabolism during pregnancy, puerperium, and lactation. Endocr Rev.1997;18(6):832-872. doi:10.1210/edrv.18.6.0319
20. Bischoff-Ferrari H. Vitamin D: what is an adequate vitamin D level andhow much supplementation is necessary?. Best Pract Res Clin Rheumatol.2009;23(6):789-795. doi:10.1016/j.berh.2009.09.005
21. Yu CK, Sykes L, Sethi M, Teoh TG, Robinson S. Vitamin D deficiencyand supplementation during pregnancy. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf).2009;70(5):685-690. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2265.2008.03403.x
22. Hollis BW, Johnson D, Hulsey TC, Ebeling M, Wagner CL. Vitamin Dsupplementation during pregnancy: double-blind, randomized clinicaltrial of safety and effectiveness [published correction appears in J BoneMiner Res. 2011 Dec; 26(12):3001]. J Bone Miner Res. 2011;26(10):2341-2357. doi:10.1002/jbmr.463
23. Pospechova K, Rozehnal V, Stejskalova L, et al. Expression and activityof vitamin D receptor in the human placenta and in choriocarcinomaBeWo and JEG-3 cell lines. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2009;299(2):178-187.doi:10.1016/j.mce.2008.12.003
24. van Etten E, Mathieu C. Immunoregulation by 1,25-dihydroxyvitaminD3: basic concepts. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2005;97(1-2):93-101.doi:10.1016/j.jsbmb.2005.06.002
25. Thota C, Laknaur A, Farmer T, Ladson G, Al-Hendy A, Ismail N.Vitamin D regulates contractile profile in human uterine myometrialcells via NF-&kappa;B pathway. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2014;210(4):347.e1-347.e10.doi:10.1016/j.ajog.2013.11.027
26. Evans KN, Nguyen L, Chan J, et al. Effects of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 and1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 on cytokine production by human decidualcells. Biol Reprod. 2006;75(6):816-822. doi:10.1095/biolreprod.106.054056
27. Merlino A, Welsh T, Erdonmez T, et al. Nuclear progesterone receptorexpression in the human fetal membranes and decidua at term before andafter labor. Reprod Sci. 2009;16(4):357-363. doi:10.1177/1933719108328616
28. Holick MF, Chen TC. Vitamin D deficiency: a worldwide problem withhealth consequences. Am J Clin Nutr. 2008;87(4):1080S-6S. doi:10.1093/ajcn/87.4.1080S
29. Holmes VA, Barnes MS, Alexander HD, McFaul P, Wallace JM. VitaminD deficiency and insufficiency in pregnant women: a longitudinal study.Br J Nutr. 2009;102(6):876-881. doi:10.1017/S0007114509297236
Volume 1, Issue 1, 2023
Page : 11-15